Argentine Senate Resolution – August 20, 2003
Bill Number: 664/03
Type of Bill: Declaration
Secretary of Parliament
Director of Publications
The Honorable National Senate
It is declared
With deep sorrow we commemorate the 88th anniversary of the genocide of 1.5 million Armenians, perpetrated by the Turkish State between the years 1915 and 1923.
This is also a manifesto of much empathy repudiating the considerable crimes against humanity that are still unpunished.
Guillermo Raúl Jenefes.-
April 24 is the commemorative anniversary of the first genocide of the Twentieth Century committed by the Turkish government in a planned and premeditated way. 1.5 million Armenians were victims of the barbarity and the horror of the massacres and deportations by the hand of the Turks, who seized the lands and denied Armenians the right to live in their historic homeland.
The politics of destruction and the intent of total annihilation of a nation and the later fanaticism to erase the memory of the recent past—the Turkish Government went too far to try to convince the world of their innocence denying the genocide and the existence of the “Armenian Question”.
Humankind did not monitor such dangers, and, together with indifference and oversight, this led to the repetition of genocidal acts. The international community is owed the admission of the responsibility of the perpetrators for what they have done, since it is an international crime of genocide and a violation of human rights.
The European Parliament, the United Nations Human Rights Commission and several countries have acknowledged the necessity of recognizing the Armenian Genocide, considering it an irrefutable, historical truth.
Mr. President, justice is the unique guarantee of human dignity; therefore I seek our equal the endorsement of the present bill.
Guillermo Raúl Jenefes.-
Argentina Law – March 18, 2004
Numero de Proyecto :51/04
Tipo de Proyecto : PROYECTO DE LEY
Senado de la Nación
PROYECTO DE LEY
El Senado y Cámara de Diputados,…
Artículo 1º- Incorpórase a la currícula escolar de los niveles primario, secundario y universitario de todo el país la temática alusiva al Genocidio Armenio, la cual deberá ser desarrollada en dichos niveles procurándose la información exhaustiva sobre lo ocurrido, así como su difusión y el fortalecimiento, en los educandos, de valores vinculados a la paz, la dignidad de las personas y los derechos humanos.
Art. 2º- Incorpórase a la efemérides de los niveles primario, secundario y universitario de todo el país el día 24 de abril como el día para honrar la memoria de las víctimas del Genocidio Armenio.
Art. 3º- Comuníquese al Poder Ejecutivo.
Diana B. Conti.-
El proyecto de ley que someto a consideración de mis pares se inscribe en una línea ideológica de afianzamiento de valores vinculados a la dignidad de la persona, a la justicia y a los derechos fundamentales del individuo, en concordancia con lo preceptuado por las convenciones internacionales y nuestra propia legislación tuitiva de aquellos derechos.
Tanto la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos adoptada por las Naciones Unidas como código básico de convivencia de la humanidad; como los otros instrumentos incorporados a nuestro derecho interno mediante el inciso 22 del artículo 75 de la Carta Magna, constituyen la estructura fundamental del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, plexo legal que deviene orientación axiológica con la vista puesta en el futuro, así como recurso con que cuenta la humanidad para evitar la recaída en el extravío colectivo.
El genocidio que el llamado “gobierno de los jóvenes turcos” perpetró en 1915 en perjuicio del pueblo armenio, así como el manto de silencio que lo cubrió durante demasiado tiempo, interpelan la conciencia de la humanidad.
En esa fecha, un 24 de abril, las autoridades ejecutaron a 2300 líderes de la comunidad armenia de Estambul, sin causa alguna y por mero prejuicio racial y religioso, dando comienzo, de este modo, al primer genocidio del siglo XX.
Empero, los antecedentes de este proceder criminal se remontan al siglo anterior. En efecto, entre 1894 y 1896 el brazo represivo del Imperio Otomano ordenó procedimientos que costaron la vida a trescientos mil armenios. Se trataba de parte de una comunidad nacional que se había organizado para reclamar reformas que reconocieran sus derechos en tanto minoría nacional.
Pero no paró aquí la saña persecutoria del poder del Estado en aquella región del mundo. En 1909 y poco después, durante la primera guerra mundial, las autoridades turcas se propusieron y lograron el exterminio sistemático de armenios que vivían en seis provincias de Anatolia oriental y Cilicia, completando estas políticas ciertamente criminales con el desplazamiento forzado de sobrevivientes que se vieron, así, exiliados y privados de sus hogares, bienes y afectos.
La verdad histórica -tenazmente exhumada por investigadores armenios y de otras nacionalidades- echan luz sobre estos desgraciados sucesos y dan cuenta de que el genocidio armenio no finalizó en 1915 o en 1918, como alguna vez se afirmó, sino que continuó luego de la primera gran conflagración.
En efecto, con el advenimiento al poder de Mustafá Kemal las matanzas de armenios se sucedieron en lúgubre registro; la masacre de la ciudad de Marash, en ese tiempo, tuvo como preludio el ataque de las fuerzas kemalistas a la guarnición francesa destacada en el lugar, que cedió posiciones hasta abandonar el país, luego, en forma definitiva, lo cual determinó que los armenios, abandonados a su suerte, fueran exterminados por los turcos.
Tal vez el hito final, en esta historia de intolerancia, haya sido la heroica defensa que ese pueblo realizó, en 1920, de la flamante república de Armenia –que había sido creada en 1918–, hasta que, finalmente, fue sovietizada.
Con el incendio de la ciudad de Esmirna, en 1922, y la muerte de griegos y armenios, se cierra este triste capítulo en la historia milenaria de un pueblo que no ceja en su demanda de justicia.
Las investigaciones de estudiosos y los archivos históricos dan cuenta de una cifra aproximada de 1.500.000 (un millón quinientos mil) víctimas de esta política de exterminio, lo cual constituye el delito definido por la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Delito de Genocidio de 1948, que entró en vigor en 1951 y respecto de la cual nuestro país depositó el pertinente instrumento de ratificación el 31 de octubre de 1963.
Aun cuando el gobierno turco no reconoce estos hechos históricos, los parlamentos de nuestro país y de Bélgica, Francia, Grecia, Italia, El Líbano, Rusia, Suecia, Uruguay, así como el Parlamento Europeo y el Consejo Mundial de Iglesias, han condenado las masacres de la población armenia y las han caracterizado como genocidio. En el mismo sentido se han pronunciado la Asamblea Nacional de Quebec, la Asamblea Legislativa de Ontario y el Consejo Canadiense de Iglesias.
No es posible ignorar tampoco que en Argentina reside una comunidad armenia numerosa y socialmente activa, cuya laboriosidad y valores se expresan en sus aportes al acervo cultural de nuestro país.
El sentimiento de justicia, hondamente arraigado en la cultura y en los valores del pueblo argentino, no podría sino enervarse si la indiferencia ante el justo anhelo de ese pueblo victimizado diera pábulo a la desmemoria colectiva. Un genocidio es, sin duda, un injusto universal y su etiología, naturaleza y modos de prevenirlo y castigarlo tiene que ser preocupación constante de los Estados.
El pueblo y el Estado armenios reclaman que se reconozca la verdad sobre lo ocurrido, así como la condigna reparación económica como obligación inexcusable que tales hechos irrogaron.
Por último, es preciso destacar que no anima a este proyecto ningún sentimiento de venganza o revancha contra miembro alguno de la comunidad universal de las naciones. Sólo busca, por razones humanitarias y de estricta justicia, refirmar el propósito de que hechos de esta naturaleza deben ser denunciados pues, de este modo, se evitarán penosas recidivas con la vista puesta en el futuro.
Atento los argumentos expuestos, se hace preciso incorporar el conocimiento y difusión de lo ocurrido con el pueblo armenio, en el período descripto, a la currícula escolar de todos los niveles, así como instituir el día 24 de abril como Día de Recordación del Genocidio Armenio. Ello así, por cuanto dichas medidas aparecen como el recurso indicado para obtener los fines de memoración, difusión y reparación que hace mucho tiempo se reclaman.
Por los fundamentos expuestos, solicito de mis pares la aprobación del presente proyecto de ley.
Diana B. Conti.
Argentina Law – March 31, 2004
Bill Number: 571/04
Type of Bill: DECLARACION
Secretary of Parliament
1. – In solidarity with the Armenian Community, the victims of the first genocide of the 20th century, to implement a new commemoration of the crime that ended the lives of more than 1.5 million Armenians by the Turkish State between the years 1915-1918.
2. – To condemn all forms of human rights violations of people, and not to allow crimes against humanity to go unpunished.
Marcela F. Lescano – Diana Conti – Mario A. Losada –
After many years, this Honorable Body in accordance with the large number of parliaments including Uruguay, Brazil, France, Switzerland, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Bulgaria, Belgium, Russia, the European Parliament and many others, commemorate the date April 24, the beginning of the genocide against the Armenian People by the Turkish State in 1915.
Our Chamber has done this exercise every year since 1984, with the conviction that such an exercise of human rights to demand the end of impunity provides improvements in validating human rights. The silence, the denial, will cause genocide to happen again. The victims wait patiently for our voice—through of our actions as Legislators.
It is important to emphasize that the five conditions which were established in the 1948 United Nations Genocide Convention, were analyzed and compared with the facts of the horror of the lives of these people. We have heard for several years, innumerable testimonies and recently, seen a large number of documentation about the cruel historical reality which has been released. Also a declaration was signed by 126 intellectuals and researchers of the Holocaust, including the Nobel Peace Prize winner, Elie Wiesel in the year 2000, that affirmed conclusively the fact of the extensive history of the Armenian Genocide and urged the democracies of the world to officially recognition it. We ask for, the endorsement of the present declaration.
Marcela F. Lescano – Diana Conti – Mario A. Losada-
Argentina Senate Resolution – April 20, 2005
Senado de las Nación
EL SENADO DE LA NACIÓN DECLARA
1.Su homenaje a las victimas del Genocidio Armenio, con motivo de cumplirse el 24 de abril próximo, el 90 aniversario del mismo, y aherir a lost actos conmemorativos que la Comunidad Armenia de la Argentina (CAA) realizarán en nuestro país durante el de ábril.
2. Su solidaridad con los familiars de las víctimas del genocidio contra el pueblo Armenio cometido por el Estado Turco entre los años 1915 y 1923.
3. Su repudio a la negación sistemática de los hechos irrefutablemente documentados, por parte de las autoridades de las diversas administraciones turcas.
4. Rescata la valoración activa de las estructura del derecho international de los derechos humanos, como recuros de la humanidad toda, para el ejercicio de la memoria y para prevención de la reiteración.
DADA EN LA SALA DE SESIONES DEL SENADO ARGENTINO, EN BUENOS AIRES, A LOS VEINTE DIAS DEL MES DE ABRIL DEL AÑO DOS MIL CINCO.
Belgium Senate Resolution – March 26, 1998
“…that the recognition of mistakes and crimes of the past is a precondition for reconciliation between peoples and that there cannot be peace without justice…”
26 March 1998
Resolution 1-736/3 Concerning the 1915 Genocide of Armenians living in Turkey
Considering the numerous studies dedicated to the situation of the Armenian population in Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century;
Considering the UN convention on the prevention and punishment of genocide, which provides a definition of the concept of genocide;
Considering the judicial verdicts that have applied this term to describe the state of Armenians living in Turkey in 1915, more specifically the verdict of the ‘tribunal de grande instance’ in Paris on 21 June 1995;
Considering the resolution by the European Parliament on 18 June 1987 concerning a “political solution to the Armenian Question”, wherein it is recognized that the Armenians living in Turkey in 1915 were the victims of a genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman government of the time;
Considering that there cannot be the slightest doubt over the historical evidence regarding the organized and systematic murder of the Armenians;
Considering that the recognition of mistakes and crimes of the past is a precondition for reconciliation between peoples and that there cannot be peace without justice, either in Armenia or elsewhere;
Furthermore considering that only through the recognition of crimes committed by previous regimes it is possible to distance oneself from their aims and strive politically for reconciliation;
Considering that the differences between the Turkish and Armenian nations continue to drag on and even today lead to the loss of human lives, to the eviction of ethnic groups and to numerous violations of human rights in that region;
Considering that the Turkish and Armenian peoples have no choice but to co-exist peacefully in the long term;
Considering the friendly ties and co-operation between, on the one hand, Turkey, Belgium and the European Union and, on the other hand, Armenia, Belgium and the European Union;
Remarking that the 1987 resolution by the European Parliament has not led the Turkish government to recognize the historic reality of the 1915 genocide;
Requests the Turkish government to recognize the historic reality of the genocide committed in 1915 by the last government of the Ottoman Empire;
Requests the parliaments of the member states of the European Union to contribute to the reconciliation between the Turkish and Armenian peoples;
Requests the European Union and its member states to lend their support to initiatives in all domains aimed at promoting a dialogue between the Armenian and Turkish peoples;
Asks the government to transmit this resolution to the prime minister of the Turkish government, to the chairman of the European parliament, to the chairman of the European Commission, to the chairmen of the parliaments of the member states of the European Union, as well as to the chairman of the parliament of the Republic of Armenia.
Canada House of Commons Resolution – April 23, 1996
That this House recognize, on the occasion of the 81st anniversary of the Armenian tragedy which claimed some 1.5 million lives that took place on April 24, 1915, and in recognition of other crimes against humanity, the week of April 20 to 27 of each year as the week of remembrance of the inhumanity of people toward one another.
The question was put on the main motion, as amended, and it was agreed to.
Canada House of Commons Resolution – June 13, 2002
Debates of the Senate (Hansard)
1st Session, 37th Parliament,
Volume 139, Issue 124
Thursday, June 13, 2002
That this House calls upon the Government of Canada:
(a) to recognize the genocide of the Armenians and to condemn any attempt to deny or distort a historical truth as being anything less than genocide, a crime against humanity, and
(b) to designate April 24th of every year hereafter throughout Canada as a day of remembrance of the 1.5 million Armenians who fell victim to the first genocide of the twentieth century.
Canada House of Commons Resolution – April 21, 2004
“That this House acknowledge the Armenian genocide of 1915 and condemn this act as a crime against humanity.”
Private Members’ Business
Pursuant to Standing Order 93(1), the House proceeded to the taking of the deferred recorded division on the motion of Ms. Dalphond-Guiral (Laval Centre), seconded by Mr. Assadourian (Brampton Centre), Mr. Kenney (Calgary Southeast) and Ms. McDonough (Halifax), — That this House acknowledge the Armenian genocide of 1915 and condemn this act as a crime against humanity. (Private Members’ Business M-380)
The question was put on the motion and it was agreed to on the following division:
YEAS: 153, NAYS: 68
Cyprus House of Representatives Resolution – April 29, 1982
Resolution Unanimously Adopted By The House of Representatives of the Republic of Cyprus on the 29th April, 1982
The House of Representatives
On the occasion of the Anniversary of the genocide of the Armenian people which was started in 1915 in an organized manner by the then Turkish regime,
1. Notes with abhorrence and condemns unreservedly the crime against the Armenian people which had the dimensions of genocide and which uprooted the Armenians from ancestral lands.
2. Supports the full restoration of the inalienable rights of the Armenian people.
3. Underlines the harmonious and long-standing coexistence and brotherly cooperation with the Armenians of Cyprus and their contribution to the political, economic and cultural life of our country.
4. Considers this coexistence as evidence of the real possibility for harmonious coexistence of all the people of Cyprus regardless of language, religion or national origin.
5. In parallel considers it necessary to condemn the crime committed against the people of Cyprus by the Turkish invasion of 1974.
French National Assembly Law – May 28, 1982
Adopted Text no. 140
October 4, 1958 Constitution
Ordinary Session of 1997-1998
May 29, 1998
Adopted in first reading by the National Assembly relating to recognition of the Armenian genocide of 1915.
The National Assembly adopted the law proposal, the content of which follows:
See numbers: 895 and 925.
Human rights and civil liberties.
France publicly recognizes the Armenian genocide of 1915. Publicly deliberated, in Paris, on May 29, 1998.
Signed: Laurent Fabius.
French Senate Law – November 7, 2000
N°22 SENATE REGULAR SESSION OF 2000-2001
Adopted by the Senate concerning the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915.
France publicly recognizes the Armenian Genocide of 1915.
Deliberated in public session in Paris on November 7, 2000.
Signed: Christian PONCELET.N° 22 SÉNAT SESSION ORDINAIRE DE 2000-2001
PROPOSITION DE LOIAdoptée par le Sénat
relative à la reconnaissance du génocide arménien de 1915.
La France reconnaît publiquement le génocide arménien de 1915.
Délibéré, en séance publque, à Paris, le 7 novembre 2000.
Signé: Christian PONCELET.
French Law – January 29, 2001
Law no. 2001-70 of January 29, 2001, relating to the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915:
The National Assembly and the Senate have adopted and the President of the Republic proclaims the following law:
France publicly recognizes the Armenian Genocide of 1915.
The present law shall be executed as a law of the state.
Done at Paris on January 29, 2001.
For the President of the Republic:
Prime Minister Lionel Jospin
(1) Preparatory documents: Law no. 2001-70.
Senate: Proposed law no. 60, discussed and adopted on November 7, 2000.
National Assembly: Proposed law adopted by the Senate, No. 2688.
Report by François Rochebloine for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, no. 2855, discussed and adopted on January 18, 2001.
LOI no 2001-70 du 29 janvier 2001 relative à la reconnaissance du génocide arménien de 1915 (1)
L’Assemblée nationale et le Sénat ont adopté,
Le Président de la République promulgue la loi dont la teneur suit:
La France reconnaît publiquement le génocide arménien de 1915.
La présente loi sera exécutée comme loi de l’Etat.
Fait à Paris, le 29 janvier 2001.
Par le Président de la République:
Le Premier ministre,
(1) Travaux préparatoires: loi no 2001-70.
Sénat: Proposition de loi no 60 (2000-2001); Discussion et adoption le 7 novembre 2000.
Assemblée nationale: Proposition de loi, adoptée par le Sénat, no 2688;
Rapport de M. François Rochebloine, au nom de la commission des affaires étrangères, no 2855; Discussion et adoption le 18 janvier 2001.
Read the official resolution from the web site of the French legislature. Search for loi no 2001-70 under Le Journal Officiel
France, Great Britain and Russia Joint Declaration – May 24, 1915
Department of State, Washington
May 29, 1915
Amembassy [American Embassy],
French Foreign Office requests following notice be given Turkish Government. Quote. May 24th
For about a month the Kurd and Turkish populations of Armenia has been massacring Armenians with the connivance and often assistance of Ottoman authorities. Such massacres took place in middle April (new style) at Erzerum, Dertchun, Eguine, Akn, Bitlis, Mush, Sassun, Zeitun, and throughout Cilicia. Inhabitants of about one hundred villages near Van were all murdered. In that city Armenian quarter is besieged by Kurds. At the same time in Constantinople Ottoman Government ill-treats inoffensive Armenian population. In view of those new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied governments announce publicly to the Sublime-Porte that they will hold personally responsible [for] these crimes all members of the Ottoman government and those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres.
Germany Parliamentary Resolution – June 15, 2005
English Translation from German]
German Bundestag Printed matter 15/5689 15th electoral period June 15, 2005
Motionby the parliamentary groups of SPD, CDU/CSU, BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN and FDP
Commemorating the expulsion and massacre of the Armenians in 1915 – Germany must make her contribution to the reconciliation between Turks and Armenians.
The Bundestag may resolve:
The German Bundestag honors and commemorates the victims of violence, murder and expulsion among the Armenian people before and during the First World War. The Bundestag deplores the deeds of the Young Turkish government in the Ottoman Empire which have resulted in the almost total annihilation of the Armenians in Anatolia. It also deplores the inglorious role played by the German Reich which, in spite of a wealth of information on the organized expulsion and annihilation of Armenians, has made no attempt to intervene and stop these atrocities.
The German Bundestag honors and commemorates the efforts made both by Turks and Germans who, working under difficult circumstances and conditions and against the resistance of their respective governments, have committed themselves in word and deed to saving Armenian women, men and children. It is particularly the memory and the work of Dr. Johannes Lepsius, who fought vigorously and effectively for the survival of the Armenian people, which is to be redeemed from oblivion and cherished and maintained to improve the relationship between the Armenian, the German and the Turkish people.
The German Bundestag is painfully aware from its own national experience how hard it is for every people to face the dark sides of its past. But it also believes that facing one’s own history fairly and squarely is necessary and constitutes an important basis for reconciliation. This is true, in particular, within the European culture of remembrance to which belongs the open discussion of the dark sides of each national history.
Against this Background, the German Bundestag deplores the fact that a full discussion of these events of the past in the Ottoman Empire is still not possible today in Turkey and that scientists and writers who wish to deal with this aspect of Turkish history are being prosecuted and exposed to public defamation. However, the German Bundestag also sees positive signs that Turkey, to an ever-increasing degree, approaches this subject within the above European culture of remembering. Examples include:
– The Great Turkish Assembly has, for the first time, invited Turkish people of Armenian descent to discussions involving the crimes committed against the Armenians and the Turkish-Armenian relationship – A Turkish-Armenian women’s dialog was held in Vienna – Initial contacts between Turkish and Armenian historians resulted in a first exchange of documents – Minister President Erdogan inaugurated Turkey’s first Armenian museum in Istanbul with the Armenian patriarch Mesrab and publicly suggested the establishment of a bilateral Turkish-Armenian panel of historians.
However, in this context, the German Bundestag perceives with great concern that the Armenian Conference of internationally renowned Turkish scientists, which was to be held in Istanbul from 25-27 May 2005, has been prevented by the Turkish Minister of Justice and that the positions taken by these scientists, which diverged from the government’s opinion, were defamed as “a stab in the back of the Turkish nation”. The proposal by Minister President Erdogan to set up a joint Turkish-Armenian commission of historians can only succeed if it is implemented on the basis of a free and public scientific discourse.
Germany, which has also made its contribution to the crimes against the Armenian people falling into oblivion, is now obliged to face her own responsibility. This responsibility involves supporting Turks and Armenians in seeking reconciliation and mutual understanding over the trenches of the past.
Both major churches in Germany, in particular, have for many years advocated the integration of the Armenians from Turkey. The Armenian communities which have settled here offer the opportunity of reconciliation and remembrance. Particularly in view of the large number of Turkish Muslims living in Germany, it is an important task to bring to mind the past and so to make the first steps toward reconciliation.
But dealing with these historical events also has an immediate significance for the present. Today, the normalization of the relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Armenia is of paramount interest and importance for the future of the entire region. What is urgently needed is to establish trust-forming measures on both sides as defined in the OSCE principles. Turkey opening the borders to Armenia could, for instance, help to relieve Armenia’s isolation and promote the taking up of diplomatic relations.
Due to its historic role in the Turkish-Armenian relations, Germany must assume a special responsibility as part of its neighborhood initiative of the EU. The aim must be to help normalize and improve the situation between Armenia and Turkey and so to help stabilize the Caucasus region.
One important contribution toward remembrance can be made by the German federal states. The duty of the information and education policy involves actions for facing the expulsion and annihilation of the Armenians as part of the whole history of ethnic conflicts in the 20th century, also in Germany.
The German Bundestag requests the Federal Government
– to help the Turks and Armenians to arrive at a settlement by remembering, reconciliation and forgiving historical guilt
– to ensure that Parliament, Government and society in Turkey deal without reservation with their role in relation to the Armenian people in the past and in the present
– to advocate the establishment of a commission of historians including Turkish, Armenian and international experts
– to ensure that not only the archives of the Ottoman Empire on this issue are made accessible to the general public, but also the copies of the German Foreign Office archives given by Germany to Turkey
– to insist on the actual organization of the conference scheduled in Istanbul but postponed under governmental pressure
– to press for freedom of opinion in Turkey, in particular with respect to the fate of the Armenians
– to help Turkey and Armenia to normalize their interstate relationships.
Berlin, June 15, 2005
Franz Müntefering and parliamentary group Dr. Angela Merkel, Michael Glos and parliamentary group Katrin Göring-Eckardt, Krista Sager and parliamentary group Dr. Wolfgang Gerhard and parliamentary group
Reasons for the motion
Ninety years ago, on April 24, 1915, the Young Turkish movement controlling the Ottoman Empire ordered the Armenian cultural and political elite in Istanbul to be arrested, deported inland and for the most part murdered. This day has become the day of remembrance for Armenians throughout the world for the expulsion and massacre of the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire which took place as early as the end of the 19th century and intensified during the First World War.
When the Ottoman Empire joined the war, the Armenian soldiers drafted into the Ottoman army were grouped into work battalions and most were murdered. Beginning in the spring of 1915, women, children and old people were sent on death marches through the Syrian desert. Those who had not died or been murdered on the way met this fate at the latest when they reached the inhuman camps in the desert near Deir ez Zôr. Massacres were also committed by units specially set up for this purpose. Resistance by high-ranking Turkish officials against this course of action, as well as criticism from the Ottoman parliament, was brutally suppressed by the Young Turkish regime. Many areas from which Christian Armenians had been expelled were later settled with Kurds and Muslin refugees from the Balkan wars. Members of other ethnic Christian groups, in particular Arameic/Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, but also certain Muslim minorities, were also affected by deportations and massacres.
According to independent estimates, more than 1 million Armenians fell victim to the deportations and mass murders. Many independent historians, parliaments and international organizations describe the expulsion and annihilation of the Armenians as genocide.
Until this day and contrary to the facts, the Turkish Republic as the legal successor of the Ottoman Empire denies that these atrocities had been well planned and organized and/or that the mass deaths during the resettlement treks and the massacres had been desired by the Ottoman government. The admitted severity of the actions against the Armenians has always been justified by the fact that many Armenians had fought on Russia’s side against Turkey both in 1878 and in 1914/1915 and that there had supposedly been the danger that these Armenians would also have fallen into the back of the Ottoman Empire during WW I. Other Turkish defenses invoked the acts of violence committed by Armenians against Turks which occurred during the armed resistance to the Turkish resettlement measures. The terrorist attacks by Armenians against Turks perpetrated right into the eighties of the twentieth century are also used as justification for the Turkish position.
In all, the true extent of the massacres and deportations is still belittled and largely disputed in Turkey today. This Turkish attitude stands in opposition to the idea of reconciliation which guides the common values of the European Union. Even today, historians in Turkey are not free in coming to terms with the history of deportations and murder of Armenians and, in spite of some relaxation in the previous criminal liability, still find themselves under great pressure.
The German Empire as the major military ally of the Ottoman Empire was also deeply involved in these events. Both the political and the military leadership of the German Empire had been aware of the persecution and murder of the Armenians right from the beginning. The files of the German Foreign Office resting on reports by the German embassy and consulates in the Ottoman Empire document the planned and organized execution of the massacres and deportations. In spite of urgent requests by many German personalities in science, politics and the churches, among these politicians like Philipp Scheidemann, Karl Liebknecht or Matthias Erzberger, and eminent persons of the protestant and catholic churches such as Adolf von Harnack and Lorenz Werthmann, the German Reich government failed to exert pressure on its Ottoman ally.
When the protestant theologian Dr. Johannes Lepsius presented the outcome of his research in Istanbul to the German Reichstag on October 5, 1915, the whole of the subject of the Armenians was censored by the German Reich government. In 1916, the German military censorship banned and confiscated Johannes Lepsius’ “Report on the Situation of the Armenian People in Turkey”. The copies of this documentation which Lepsius had sent directly to the delegates of the German Reichstag were intercepted by the authorities and not handed to the delegates until after the war in 1919.
This almost forgotten policy of repression by the German Reich demonstrates that this chapter of history still waits to be dealt with in a satisfactory manner here in Germany.
Greek (Helenic Republic) Resolution – April 25, 1996
Hellenic Parliament Resolution 2397/1996
25 April 1996
The bill “For the establishment of the 24th of April as the day of commemoration of the genocide of Armenians by Turkey” was unanimously accepted in principle, in article and in its entirety in one discussion and is as follows:
The 24th of April is established as the day of commemoration of the genocide of Armenians by Turkey.
The 24th of April is defined as the day of commemoration of the genocide of Armenians by Turkey.
The character, content, bearer and manner of organization of the commemoration events are determined by a presidential decree that is issued with the proposal of the Ministries of the Interior, and of Public Administration and Decentralization, after taking into consideration the advice of the most recognized Armenian guilds and organizations.
The present law will be in effect after its publication in the Official Gazette of the Hellenic Government
Lithuania Seima Resolution – December 15, 2005
Approved Seimas resolution “Acknowledgement of the genocide of the Armenian nation”
15 December 2005 VIR(3)
(from prenary sittings)
Evening plenary sitting
Algis Kasèta, the Liberal, presented (47 memebers of Seimas) the project of Seimas resolution No. XP-976. “Acknowledgement of the genocide of the Armenian nation” Votes: “in favour” – 48, abstainers – 3.
The text of the resolution:
“Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania,
commemorating 90th anniversary of the genocid of the Armenian nation,
condemning the genocide of the Armenian nation, committed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1915,
calls on the Turkish Republic to acknowledge this historical fact”.
In two years about 1.500.000 Armenian nation is acknowledged by: Permanent Court of Human Rights (1984), Sub commission on Human Rights of the UN (1985), European Parliament (1987), Uruguay, Argentina, Canada, Greece, Sweeden, Belgium, Holland, Slovakia, Poland and other countries. Furthermore, 29 January, 2001, the President of France Jaques Chirac and PM Lionel Jospin, in conformity with the decision of the National Assembly about the acknowledgement of the genocide of the Armenian nation, signed the law, which says: “France publicly acknowledges the genocide of the Armenian nation, commited in 1915. This law should be treated like a law of the Republic”.
(From the website of the Armenian community in Lithuania.)
Lebanon Chamber of Deputies Resolution – April 3, 1997
Republic of Lebanon
Chamber of Deputies
The Lebanese Chamber of Deputies
Feeling the pains and suffering that the Lebanese-Armenian people lived through between 1915 and 1923, similar to the suffering of the Lebanese people and the peoples of the region, which continues until today, resulting from the organized extermination acts against our peoples at the hands of the colonizer in the beginning of the century.
Whereas the 24th day of April of each year constitutes an occasion to mark this catastrophe embodied by the massacres committed against the Armenian people.
The Chamber of Deputies calls upon the people of Lebanon to declare their solidarity with the Armenian people on this day.
Russia Duma Resolution – April 14, 1995
Resolution by the State Duma of Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation*
April 14, 1995
Based on irrefutable historic facts which attest to the extermination of Armenians on the territory of Western Armenia from 1915 to 1922 and, in accordance with the following Conventions adopted by the United Nations:
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, December 9, 1948;
Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, November 26, 1968;
Aspiring to restore the humanitarian traditions of the Russian State and,
Emphasizing that through the initiative of Russia, the Great European Powers already in 1915 characterized the actions of the Turkish Empire against the Armenian people as a “Crime Against Humanity” and,
Noting that the physical extermination of the fraternal Armenian people in its historic homeland aimed at destroying Russia;
The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation:
Condemns the perpetrators of the extermination of Armenians from 1915 to 1922;
Expresses its deep sympathy to the Armenian people and recognizes April 24 as a day of remembrance for the victims of the Genocide.
Slovakia Parliament Resolution – November 30, 2004
NÁRODNÁ RADA SLOVENSKEJ REPUBLIKY III. volebné obdobie
NÁRODNEJ RADY SLOVENSKEJ REPUBLIKY
30. novembra 2004
podané poslancom Františkom Mikloškom v rozprave o návrhu stanoviska Slovenskej republiky k začatiu prístupových rokovaní Európskej únie s Tureckou republikou (tlač 962)
Národná rada Slovenskej republiky
uznáva genocídu Arménov v roku 1915, pri ktorej zahynuli státisíce Arménov žijúcich v Osmanskej ríši a považuje tento čin za zločin proti ľudskosti.
Pavol H r u š o v s k ý v. r.
Národnej rady Slovenskej republiky
Jozef H e r i b a n v. r.
Igor F e d e r i č v. r.
Sweeden Parliament Report – March 29, 2000
The Foreign Ministry writes in its report:
“An official statement and recognition of the Genocide of the Armenians is important and necessary. In 1985 the UN and the European Parliament established the fact that the Ottoman Empire had committed genocide against the Armenian people in the beginning of the 20th century. The Standing Committee [on Foreign Affairs] is of the opinion that the greater openness Turkey demonstrates, the stronger Turkey’s democratic identity will be. It is therefore important that unbiased independent and international research on the genocide committed against the Armenian people be carried out. It is of great importance that an increasing openness and historical understanding of the events of 1915 and thereafter be developed. An improvement in this respect would also be of importance for the stability and the development in the whole Caucasus region.”
Utrikesutskottet skriver i sitt betänkande att:
“Det är angeläget och nödvändigt med en officiell redovisning och erkännande av folkmordet på armenierna. 1985 fastslogs i FN och i Europaparlamentet att det ottomanska riket begått folkmord på det armeniska folket i början av detta sekel. Utskottet anser att ju större öppenhet Turkiet visar beträffande sitt förflutna desto mer bidrar det till att stärka Turkiets demokratiska identitet. Det är därför viktigt att det genomförs förutsättningslös oberoende internationell forskning om det folkmord som drabbat den armeniska befolkningen. Det vore av stor vikt om det kan utvecklas en ökad öppenhet och historisk förståelse för händelserna 1915 och därefter. En förbättring härvidlag torde även få betydelse för stabiliteten och utvecklingen i Kaukasusregionen i sin helhet.”
Switzerland (Helvetic Confederation) National Council Resolution – December 16, 2003
02.3069 – Postulat.
Reconnaissance du génocide des Arméniens de 1915
Déposé par: Vaudroz Jean-Claude
Repris par: de Buman Dominique
Date de dépôt: 18-03-2002
Déposé au: Conseil national
Etat actuel: Liquidé
Le Conseil national reconnaît le génocide des Arméniens de 1915. Il demande au Conseil fédéral d’en prendre acte et de transmettre sa position par les voies diplomatiques usuelles.
1. L’extermination des Arméniens de l’Empire Ottoman pendant la Première Guerre mondiale a anéanti plus d’un million de personnes déportées et massacrées sur l’ordre du pouvoir ottoman. Ces faits, incontestables dans leur signification et leur ampleur, ont servi de référence à Raphael Lemkin, le juriste qui a défini la notion de génocide. Les normes fixées par l’ONU dans la Convention de 1948 correspondent très exactement au processus de destruction subi par les Arméniens.
2. Par la reconnaissance du génocide des Arméniens, la Suisse rendra justice aux victimes, aux rescapés et à leurs descendants et contribuera à la prévention d’autres crimes contre l’humanité. C’est un geste décisif par lequel la Suisse montrera son engagement pour les droits de l’homme, le respect des minorités et la justice pénale internationale. Elle rappelle en outre le caractère imprescriptible des crimes contre l’humanité et entend contribuer à la lutte contre le négationnisme.
3. Le génocide des Arméniens a été reconnu par l’ONU en 1985 à travers l’adoption du rapport d’une de ses commissions d’experts, la sous-commission pour la prévention des discriminations et pour la protection des minorités, puis par le Parlement européen dans une résolution en 1987. Au cours de ces dernières années, les parlements français, suédois et italien ont fait de même, ainsi que de nombreux parlements en Europe et ailleurs. Le canton de Genève l’a fait à deux reprises: par le Grand Conseil en 1998 et par le Conseil d’Etat en décembre dernier. On peut citer enfin les prises de position du Conseil oecuménique des Eglises, à travers la Déclaration adoptée en 1983.
4. Le 13 mars 2001, le Conseil national, après décision unanime des Commissions de politique extérieure des deux Chambres, a transmis au Conseil fédéral la pétition de l’Association des opposants au génocide (Francfort-sur-le-Main) “pour qu’il en prenne acte” et l’ont invité à “aborder la question du génocide arménien dans le cadre du dialogue politique entre la Suisse et la Turquie”. Il est donc naturel que le Conseil national entérine cette prise de position par une déclaration solennelle.
5. Le Conseil national souhaite par l’adoption de ce postulat contribuer à l’établissement d’une paix durable entre Turcs et Arméniens, paix qui ne peut s’établir que sur une vision commune et conforme à la vérité de l’histoire.
Prise de position du Conseil fédéral 15-05-2002Le Conseil fédéral a plusieurs fois déjà, dans ses réponses à des interventions parlementaires – dont récemment le postulat Zisyadis 00.3245, “Génocide arménien. Reconnaissance par la Suisse”, du 6 juin 2000 – regretté et condamné les tragiques déportations en masse et les massacres qui ont marqué la fin de l’Empire Ottoman et ont fait de très nombreuses victimes dans la population arménienne. La Turquie ne conteste pas ces massacres, mais porte sur leur organisation délibérée par les personnalités au pouvoir à l’époque un jugement différent de celui de nombreux historiens et historiennes. Le Conseil fédéral estime que cette question relève de la recherche historique.
La politique extérieure de la Suisse vise à un équilibre durable dans le Caucase, en particulier entre la Turquie et l’Arménie. Dans ce contexte, il importe que le dialogue s’instaure dans la région elle-même. La question turco-arménienne a été soulevée à plusieurs reprises lors de contacts bilatéraux officiels avec la Turquie. Il y a par exemple été question des activités du comité de réconciliation turco-arménien et de l’accès des chercheuses et des chercheurs aux archives. La conviction prévaut que, s’agissant d’un épisode douloureux de l’histoire, l’effort de mémoire collective doit être réalisé sur place, et avant tout par les pays concernés. La politique extérieure de la Suisse veut contribuer à l’entente turco-arménienne par le dialogue politique qui s’est instauré entre la Suisse et la Turquie en 2000 et qui porte notamment sur les droits de l’homme. L’adoption du postulat risquerait de porter atteinte au dialogue officiel et régulier qui a été établi.
Les cosignataires du postulat voudraient que leur démarche contribue à la paix durable entre la Turquie et l’Arménie en adressant un message de justice aux descendants des victimes arméniennes. Mais l’acceptation de ce postulat pourrait avoir l’effet contraire et ajouter encore à la charge émotionnelle qui pèse sur les relations entre la Turquie et l’Arménie.
Déclaration du Conseil fédéral 15-05-2002
Le Conseil fédéral propose de rejeter le postulat.
08-12-2003 L’intervention est reprise par Monsieur de Bumann.
16-12-2003 CN Adoption.
Bulletin officiel – les procès-verbaux
Compétence Département des affaires étrangères (DFAE)
Abate Fabio – Aeschbacher Ruedi – Bader Elvira – Baumann Ruedi – Baumann Stephanie – Beck Serge – Berberat Didier – Bugnon André – Bühlmann Cécile -Cavalli Franco – Chappuis Liliane – Chevrier Maurice – Chiffelle Pierre – Christen Yves – Cina Jean-Michel – Cuche Fernand – de Dardel Jean-Nils – Decurtins Walter – Donzé Walter – Dormann Rosmarie – Dormond Béguelin Marlyse – Eberhard Toni – Eggly Jacques-Simon – Ehrler Melchior – Estermann Heinrich – Fasel Hugo – Fässler-Osterwalder Hildegard – Fattebert Jean – Fehr Jacqueline – Fehr Mario – Fehr Hans-Jürg – Fetz Anita – Galli Remo – Garbani Valérie – Genner Ruth – Glasson Jean-Paul – Glur Walter – Goll Christine – Graf Maya – Grobet Christian – Gross Andreas – Gross Jost – Guisan Yves – Günter Paul -Gysin Remo – Haering Barbara – Haller Ursula – Hämmerle Andrea – Hess Walter – Hofmann Urs – Hollenstein Pia – Hubmann Vreni – Imfeld Adrian – Imhof Rudolf – Janiak Claude – Jossen-Zinsstag Peter – Lachat François – Lauper Hubert – Leu Josef – Leutenegger Oberholzer Susanne – Leuthard Doris – Loepfe Arthur – Lustenberger Ruedi – Maillard Pierre-Yves – Maitre Jean-Philippe – Mariétan Fernand – Marti Werner – Marty Kälin Barbara – Mathys Hans Ulrich – Maury Pasquier Liliane – Meier-Schatz Lucrezia – Menétrey-Savary Anne-Catherine – Meyer Thérèse – Mugny Patrice – Müller-Hemmi Vreni – Neirynck Jacques – Pedrina Fabio – Pelli Fulvio – Raggenbass Hansueli – Randegger Johannes – Rechsteiner Paul – Rechsteiner Rudolf – Rennwald Jean-Claude – Robbiani Meinrado – Rossini Stéphane – Ruey Claude – Scheurer Rémy – Schmid Odilo – Simoneschi-Cortesi Chiara – Sommaruga Simonetta – Spielmann Jean – Strahm Rudolf – Studer Heiner – Stump Doris – Suter Marc F. – Teuscher Franziska -Thanei Anita – Tillmanns Pierre – Tschäppät Alexander – Vallender Dorle – Vaudroz René – Vermot-Mangold Ruth-Gaby – Vollmer Peter – Walker Felix – Widmer Hans – Widrig Hans Werner – Wiederkehr Roland – Wyss Ursula – Zäch Guido – Zanetti Roberto – Zapfl Rosmarie – Zbinden Hans – Zisyadis Josef (113)
Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit; Armenien-Frage; Armenien; Türkei; Erster Weltkrieg; Vergangenheit; Opfer unter der Zivilbevölkerung; diplomatische Beziehungen; 08;
Uruguay Senate and House of Representatives Resolution – April 20, 1965
Law No. 13.326
Day of Remembrance for the Armenian Martyrs
The Senate and House of Representatives of Uruguay meeting in the General Assembly,
Declares the following 24th of April “Day of Remembrance for the Armenian Martyrs”, in honor of the members of that nationality slain in 1915.
The stations of the Official Radio Service must on that date conduct part of their broadcast in honor of the mentioned nation.
Armenian descendants who are public servants are authorized to miss work on the mentioned date.
Designate with the name of “Armenia”, the 2nd Grade School, No. 156, in the Department of Montevideo.
Senate chambers, in Montevideo, the 20th of April, 1965
Martin R. Echegoyen
Jose Pastor Salvanach
Uruguay Law – March 26, 2004
Day of Recognition for the Armenian Martyrs
Bill Number 17.752
Article 1-The day of April 24 is declared as the “Day of Recognition for the Armenian Martyrs” in homage to the victims of this national massacre in 1915.
Article 2-The National Broadcasting Service of Uruguay (SODRE), and also other radio and television services, have the duty on this date to allocate part of their programming to the recognition of this event.
The President of the Republic of Uruguay and the Secretary of the Press and Broadcasting
US Senate Concurrent Resolution 12 – February 9, 1916
“Whereas the people of the United States are deeply impressed by the deplorable conditions of insecurity, starvation, and misery now prevalent in Armenia”
S. CON. RES. 12 [Senate Concurrent Resolution 12]
[Report No. 837.]
In the House of Representatives.
February 10, 1916.
Referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.
June 21, 1916
Referred to the House Calendar and ordered to be printed.
Whereas in countries now engaged in war there are several hundreds of thousands of Armenians in need of food, clothing, and shelter; and
Whereas great numbers of them have been required by conditions growing out of the state of war to leave their homes and their property, deprived of an opportunity to make provision for their most elementary wants, causing starvation, disease, and untold suffering; and
Whereas the people of the United States of America have learned with sorrow of this terrible plight of great numbers of human beings and have most generously responded to the cry for help whenever such an appeal has reached them: Therefore be it
Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That, in view of the misery, wretchedness, and hardships which these people are suffering, the President of the United States be respectfully asked to designate a day on which the citizens of this country may give expression to their sympathy by contributing to the funds now being raised for the relief of the Armenians in the belligerent countries.
Passed the Senate February 9, 1916.
Attest: James M. Baker, Secretary.
House of Representatives
Report No. 837.
Relief of Armenians.
June 21, 1916. — Referred to the House Calendar and ordered to be printed.
Mr. Flood, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, submitted the following Report.
[To accompany S. Con. Res. 12.]
The Committee on Foreign Affairs, to which was referred the resolution S. Con. Res. 12, having had the same under consideration, reports the said resolution back without amendment and with the recommendation that the same be passed.
The committee deems it unnecessary to give reasons for its action, as the desperate condition and the urgent need of relief for the Armenians are so widely known. The purpose of the resolution is to give an impetus to the untiring efforts of the generous people of this country who have been responding to the call of humanity and to the relief of these suffering people. Our ambassador to Turkey has authorized the American Committee for Armenian Relief to publish a letter, from which the quotation following is taken:
I again want to urge upon your committee the great necessity of securing additional funds to enable us to render further assistance to the Armenian sufferers.
If you could only bring home to the public the large amount of good done by the expenditure of the funds already sent us and the number of people we were able to save from dire distress, I feel convinced that there would be a generous and prompt response
US Congress Act to incorporate Near East Relief – August 6, 1919
“to provide for the care of orphans and widows and to promote the social, economic, and industrial welfare of those who have been rendered destitute, or dependent directly or indirectly, by the vicissitudes of war, the cruelties of men, or other causes beyond their control.”
SIXTY-SIXTH CONGRESS. SESS. I. CH. 32. August 6, 1919.
[Public No. 25]
District of Columbia, Near East Relief incorporated.
CHAP. 32. – An Act To incorporate Near East Relief
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following persons, namely, James L. Barton, Cleveland H. Dodge, Henry Morgenthau, Edwin M. Bulkley, Alexander J. Hemphill, Charles R. Crane, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Elihu Root, Abram I. Elkus, Charles W. Eliot, Harry Pratt Judson, Charles E. Beury, Arthur J. Brown, John B. Calvert, William I. Chamberlain, Robert J. Cuddihy, Cleveland E. Dodge, William T. Ellis, James Cardinal Gibbons, David H. Greer, Harold A. Hatch, William I. Haven, Myron T. Herrick, Hamilton Holt, Frank W. Jackson, Arthur Curtiss James, Frederick Lynch, Vance C. McCormick, Charles S. Macfarland, Henry B.F. Macfarland, William B. Millar, John R. Mott, Frank Mason North, George A. Plimpton, Philip Rhinelander, William Jay Schieffelin, George T. Scott, Albert Shaw, William Sloane, Edward Lincoln Smith, Robert Eliot Speer, James M. Speers, Oscar S. Straus, Charles V. Vickrey Harry A. Wheeler, Stanley White, Ray Lyman Wilbur, Talcott Williams, and Stephen S. Wise, their associates and successors duly chosen, are hereby incorporated and declared to be a body corporate of the District of Columbia by the name of Near East Relief and by that name shall be known and have perpetual succession, with the powers, limitations, and restrictions herein contained.
SEC. 2. That the object for which said corporation is incorporated shall be to provide relief and to assist in the repatriation, rehabilitation, and reestablishment of suffering and dependent people of the Near East and adjacent areas; to provide for the care of orphans and widows and to promote the social, economic, and industrial welfare of those who have been rendered destitute, or dependent directly or indirectly, by the vicissitudes of war, the cruelties of men, or other causes beyond their control.
SEC. 3. That the direction and management of the affairs of the corporation, and the control of its property and funds, shall be vested in a board of trustees, to be composed of the following individuals: James L. Barton, Cleveland H. Dodge, Henry Morgenthau, Edwin M. Bulkley, Alexander J. Hemphill, Charles R. Crane, William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Elihu Root, Abram I. Elkus, Charles W. Eliot, Harry Pratt Judson, Charles E. Beury, Arhtur J. Brown, John B. Calvert, William I. Chamberlain, Robert J. Cuddihy, Cleveland E. Dodge, William T. Ellis, James Cardinal Gibbons, David H. Greer, Harold A. Hatch, William I. Haven, Myron T. Herrick, Hamilton Holt, Frank W. Jackson, Arthur Curtiss James, Frederick Lynch, Vance C. McCormick Charles S. Macfarland, Henry B.F. Macfarland, William B. Millar, John R. Mott, Frank Mason North, George A. Plimpton, Philip Rhinelander, William Jay Schieffelin, George T. Scott, Albert Shaw, William Sloane, Edward Lincoln Smith, Robert Eliot Speer, James M. Speers, Oscar S. Straus, Charles V. Vickrey, Harry A. Wheeler, Stanley White, Ray Myman Wilbur, Talcott Williams, and Stephen S. Wise, who shall constitute the first board of trustees and constitute the members of the corporation. Vacancies occurring by death, resignation, or otherwise shall be filled by the remaining trustees in such manner as the by-laws shall prescribe, and the persons so elected shall thereupon become trustees and also members of the corporation.
SEC. 4. That the principal office of the corporation shall be located in the District of Columbia, but offices may be maintained and meetings of the corporation or of the trustees and committees may be held in other places, such as the by-laws may from time to time fix.
SEC. 5. That the said trustees shall be entitled to take, hold, and administer any securities, funds, or property which may be transferred to them for the purposes and objects hereinbefore enumerated by the existing and unincorporated American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, and such other funds or property as may be necessary to secure the safe and convenient transaction of the business of the corporation.
SEC. 6. That as soon as may be possible after the passage of this Act a meeting of the trustees hereinbefore named shall be called by Cleveland H. Dodge, Henry Morgenthau, Abram I. Elkus, Edwin M. Bulkley, Alexander J. Hemphill, William B. Millar, George T. Scott, James L. Barton, and Charles V. Vickrey, or any six of them, at the borough of Manhattan, in the city of New York, by notice serviced in person or by mail, addressed to each trustee at his place of residence; and the said trustees named herein, or a majority thereof, being assembled, shall organize and proceed to adopt by-laws, to elect officers, and generally to organize the said corporation.
SEC. 7. That a meeting of the incorporators, their associates, or successors, shall be held once in every year after the year of incorporation at such time and place as shall be prescribed in by the by-laws, when the annual reports of the officers and executive boards shall be presented and members of the executive board elected for the ensuing year. Special meetings of the corporation may be called upon such notice as may be prescribed.
SEC. 8. That a copy of the constitution and by-laws and of all amendments thereto shall be filed with the Congress when adopted, and on or before the 1st day of April each year said corporation shall make and transmit to the Congress a report of its proceedings for the year ending December 31 preceding, including in such report the names and residences of its officers, and a full and itemized account of all receipts and expenditures.
SEC. 9. That the corporation shall have no power to issue certificates of stock or declare or pay any dividends, or otherwise distribute to its members any of its property, or the proceeds therefrom, or from its operations. On dissolution of the corporation otherwise than by Act of congress the property shall escheat to the United States.
SEC. 10. That all members and officers of the corporations and of its governing body may reside in or be citizens of any place within the United States.
SEC. 11. That the franchise herein granted shall terminate at the expiration of twenty-five years from the date of the approval of the Act; and that Congress reserves the right to repeal, alter, or amend this act at any time.
Approved, August 6, 1919.
US Senate Resolution – May 11, 1920
S. RES. 359. [Senate Resolution 359]
In the Senate of the United States.
May 11, 1920
Mr. Harding, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, reported the following resolution; which was ordered to be placed on the calendar.
May 11 (calendar day, May 13), 1920.
Considered and agreed to.
Whereas the testimony adduced at the hearings conducted by the subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations have clearly established the truth of the reported massacres and other atrocities from which the Armenian people have suffered; and
Whereas the people of the United States are deeply impressed by the deplorable conditions of insecurity, starvation, and misery now prevalent in Armenia; and
Whereas the independence of the Republic of Armenia has been duly recognized by the supreme council of the peace conference and by the Government of the United States of America: Therefore be it
Resolved, That a sincere congratulations of the Senate of the United States are hereby extended to the people of Armenia on the recognition of the independence of the Republic of Armenia, without prejudice respecting the territorial boundaries involved; and be it further
Resolved, That the Senate of the United States hereby expresses the hope that stable government, proper protection of individual liberties and rights, and the full realization of nationalistic aspirations may soon be attained by the Armenian people; and be it further
Resolved, That in order to afford necessary protection for the lives and property of citizens of the United States at the port of Batum and along the line of the railroad leading to Baku, the President is hereby requested, if not incompatible with the public interest, to cause a United States warship and a force of marines to be dispatched to such port with instructions to such marines to disembark and to protect American lives and property.
May 11 (calendar day, May 13), 1920. — Considered and agreed to.
US House of Representatives Joint Resolution 148 – April 9, 1975
H.J. Resolution 148 [House Joint Resolution 148]
In the Senate of the United States
April 9, 1975
Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary
To designate April 24, 1975, as “National Day of Remembrance of Man’s Inhumanity to Man”.
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That April 24, 1975, is hereby designated as “National Day of Remembrance of Man’s Inhumanity to Man”, and the President of the United States is authorized and requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe such day as a day of remembrance for all the victims of genocide, especially those of Armenian ancestry who succumbed to the genocide perpetrated in 1915, and in whose memory this date is commemorated by all Armenians and their friends throughout the world.
Passed the House of Representatives April 8, 1975.
Attest: W. Pat Jennings, Clerk.
US House of Representatives Joint Resolution 247 – September 10, 1984
H.J. Resolution 247 [House Joint Resolution 247]
In the Senate of the United States
September 12, 1984
Received; read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary
To designate April 24, 1985, as “National Day of Remembrance of Man’s Inhumanity to Man”.
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That April 24, 1985, is hereby designated as “National Day of Remembrance of Man’s Inhumanity to Man”, and the President of the United States is authorized and requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the people of the United States to observe such day as a day of remembrance for all the victims of genocide, especially the one and one-half million people of Armenian ancestry who were the victims of the genocide perpetrated in Turkey between 1915 and 1923, and in whose memory this date is commemorated by all Armenians and their friends throughout the world.
Passed the House of Representatives September 10, 1984.
Attest: Benjamin J. Guthrie, Clerk.
US House of Representatives Resolution 3540 – June 11, 1996
House Resolution 3540
Making appropriations for foreign operations, export financing, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1997, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
LIMITATION OF ASSISTANCE TO TURKEY
SEC. 547. Not more than $22,000,000 of the funds appropriated in this Act under the heading “Economic Support Fund” may be made available to the Government of Turkey, except when it is made known to the Federal official having authority to obligate or expend such funds that the Government of Turkey has (1) joined the United States in acknowledging the atrocity committed against the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1923; and (2) taken all appropriate steps to honor the memory of the victims of the Armenian genocide.
That the following sums are appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1997, and for other purposes, namely:
Passed the House of Representatives June 11, 1996.
Common Declaration of his Holiness John Paul II and his Holiness Karekin II at Holy Etchmiadzin, Republic of Armenia – September 27, 2001
OF HIS HOLINESS JOHN PAUL II
AND HIS HOLINESS KAREKIN II
AT HOLY ETCHMIADZIN, REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
The celebration of the 1700th anniversary of the proclamation of Christianity as the religion of Armenia has brought us together — John Paul II, Bishop of Rome and Pastor of the Catholic Church, and Karekin II, the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians — and we thank God for giving us this joyous opportunity to join again in common prayer, in praise of his all-holy Name. Blessed be the Holy Trinity — Father, Son and Holy Spirit — now and for ever.
As we commemorate this wondrous event, we remember with reverence, gratitude and love the great confessor of our Lord Jesus Christ, Saint Gregory the Illuminator, as well as his collaborators and successors. They enlightened not only the people of Armenia but also others in the neighbouring countries of the Caucasus. Thanks to their witness, dedication and example, the Armenian people in A. D. 301 were bathed in the divine light and earnestly turned to Christ as the Truth, the Life, and the Way to salvation.
They worshipped God as their Father, professed Christ as their Lord and invoked the Holy Spirit as their Sanctifier; they loved the apostolic universal Church as their Mother. Christ’s supreme commandment, to love God above all and our neighbour as ourselves, became a way of life for the Armenians of old. Endowed with great faith, they chose to bear witness to the Truth and accept death when necessary, in order to share eternal life. Martyrdom for the love of Christ thus became a great legacy of many generations of Armenians. The most valuable treasure that one generation could bequeath to the next was fidelity to the Gospel, so that, with the grace of the Holy Spirit, the young would become as resolute as their ancestors in bearing witness to the Truth. The extermination of a million and a half Armenian Christians, in what is generally referred to as the first genocide of the twentieth century, and the subsequent annihilation of thousands under the former totalitarian regime are tragedies that still live in the memory of the present-day generation. These innocents who were butchered in vain are not canonized, but many among them were certainly confessors and martyrs for the name of Christ. We pray for the repose of their souls, and urge the faithful never to lose sight of the meaning of their sacrifice. We thank God for the fact that Christianity in Armenia has survived the adversities of the past seventeen centuries, and that the Armenian Church is now free to carry out her mission of proclaiming the Good News in the modern Republic of Armenia and in many areas near and far where Armenian communities are present.
Armenia is again a free country, as in the early days of King Tiridates and Saint Gregory the Illuminator. Over the past ten years, the right of citizens in the burgeoning Republic to worship and practise their religion in freedom has been recognized. In Armenia and in the diaspora, new Armenian institutions have been established, churches have been built, associations and schools have been founded. In all of this we acknowledge the loving hand of God. For he has made his miracles visible in the continuing history of a small nation, which has preserved its particular identity thanks to its Christian faith. Because of their faith and their Church, the Armenian people have developed a unique Christian culture, which is indeed a most valuable contribution to the treasury of Christianity as a whole.
The example of Christian Armenia testifies that faith in Christ brings hope to every human situation, no matter how difficult. We pray that the saving light of Christian faith may shine on both the weak and the strong, on both the developed and developing nations of this world. Particularly today, the complexities and challenges of the international situation require a choice between good and evil, darkness and light, humanity and inhumanity, truth and falsehood. Present issues of law, politics, science, and family life touch upon the very meaning of humanity and its vocation. They call today’s Christians no less than the martyrs of other times to bear witness to the Truth even at the risk of paying a high price.
This witness will be all the more convincing if all of Christ’s disciples could profess together the one faith and heal the wounds of division among themselves. May the Holy Spirit guide Christians, and indeed all people of good will, on the path of reconciliation and brotherhood. Here at Holy Etchmiadzin we renew our solemn commitment to pray and work to hasten the day of communion among all the members of Christ’s faithful flock, with true regard for our respective sacred traditions.
With God’s help, we shall do nothing against love, but “surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, we shall lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and shall run with perseverance the race that is set before us” (cf. Heb 12:1)
We urge our faithful to pray without ceasing that the Holy Spirit will fill us all, as he did the holy martyrs of every time and place, with the wisdom and courage to follow Christ, the Way, the Truth and the Life.
Holy Etchmiadzin, 27 September 2001
His Holiness John Paul II
His Holiness Karekin II
Vatican City Communique – November 10, 2002
“…The Armenian genocide, which began the century, was a prologue to horrors that would follow. Two world wars, countless regional conflicts and deliberately organized campaigns of extermination took the lives of millions of faithful…”
Joint Communiqué of Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin II
His Holiness Pope John Paul II, Bishop of Rome, and His Holiness Karekin II, Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, give thanks to the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, for enabling them to meet together on the occasion of the Jubilee of the Year 2000 and on the threshold of the 1700th anniversary of the proclamation of Christianity as the state religion of Armenia.
They also give thanks in the Holy Spirit that the fraternal relations between the See of Rome and the See of Etchmiadzin have further developed and deepened in recent years. This progress finds its expression in their present personal meeting and particularly in the gift of a relic of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, the holy missionary who converted the king of Armenia (301 A.D.) and established the line of Catholicoi of the Armenian Church. The present meeting builds upon the previous encounters between Pope Paul VI and Catholicos Vasken I (1970) and upon the two meetings between Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin I (1996 and 1999). Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin II now continue to look forward to a possible meeting in Armenia. On the present occasion, they wish to state together the following.
Together we confess our faith in the Triune God and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, who became man for our salvation. We also believe in One, Catholic, Apostolic and Holy Church. The Church, as the Body of Christ, indeed, is one and unique. This is our common faith, based on the teachings of the Apostles and the Fathers of the Church. We acknowledge furthermore that both the Catholic Church and the Armenian Church have true sacraments, above all – by apostolic succession of bishops – the priesthood and the Eucharist. We continue to pray for full and visible communion between us. The liturgical celebration we preside over together, the sign of peace we exchange and the blessing we give together in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, testify that we are brothers in the episcopacy. Together we are jointly responsible for what is our common mission: to teach the apostolic faith and to witness to the love of Christ for all human beings, especially those living in difficult circumstances.
The Catholic Church and the Armenian Church share a long history of mutual respect, considering their various theological, liturgical and canonical traditions as complementary, rather than conflicting. Today, too, we have much to receive from one another. For the Armenian Church, the vast resources of Catholic learning can become a treasure and source of inspiration, through the exchange of scholars and students, through common translations and academic initiatives, through different forms of theological dialogue. Likewise, for the Catholic Church, the steadfast, patient faith of a martyred nation like Armenia can become a source of spiritual strength, particularly through common prayer. It is our firm desire to see these many forms of mutual exchange and rapprochement between us improved and intensified.
As we embark upon the third millennium, we look back on the past and forward to the future. As to the past, we thank God for the many blessings we have received from his infinite bounty, for the holy witness given by so many saints and martyrs, for the spiritual and cultural heritage bequeathed by our ancestors. Many times, however, both the Catholic Church and the Armenian Church have lived through dark and difficult periods. Christian faith was contested by atheistic and materialistic ideologies; Christian witness was opposed by totalitarian and violent regimes; Christian love was suffocated by individualism and the pursuit of personal interest. Leaders of nations no longer feared God, nor did they feel ashamed before humankind. For both of us, the 20th century was marked by extreme violence. The Armenian genocide, which began the century, was a prologue to horrors that would follow. Two world wars, countless regional conflicts and deliberately organized campaigns of extermination took the lives of millions of faithful. Nevertheless, without diminishing the horror of these events and their consequences, there may be a kind of divine challenge in them, if in response Christians are persuaded to join together in deeper friendship in the cause of Christian truth and love.
We now look to the future with hope and confidence. At this juncture in history, we see new horizons for us Christians and for the world. Both in the East and in the West, after having experienced the deadly consequences of godless regimes and lifestyles, many people are yearning for the knowledge of truth and the way of salvation. Together, guided by charity and respect for freedom, we seek to answer their desire, so as to bring them to the sources of authentic life and true happiness. We seek the intercession of the Apostles Peter and Paul, Thaddeus and Bartholomew, of Saint Gregory the Illuminator and all Saintly Pastors of the Catholic Church and the Armenian Church, and pray the Lord to guide our communities so that, with one voice, we may give witness to the Lord and proclaim the truth of salvation. We also pray that around the world, wherever members of the Armenian and the Catholic Church live side by side, all ordained ministers, religious and faithful will “help to carry one another’s burdens, and in this way obey the law of Christ” (Gal 6: 2). May they mutually sustain and assist one another, in full respect of their particular identities and ecclesiastical traditions, avoiding to prevail one over another: “so then, as often as we have the chance, we should do good to everyone, and especially to those who belong to our family in the faith” (Gal 6:10).
Finally, we seek the intercession of the Holy Mother of God for the sake of peace. May the Lord grant wisdom to the leaders of nations, so that justice and peace may prevail throughout the world. In these days in particular, we pray for peace in the Middle East. May all the children of Abraham grow in mutual respect and find appropriate ways for living peacefully together in this sacred part of the world.
[Original text: English]